Giảm mỡ spa emcas

Background: While planning và operation of traditional electric utility systems used to be strongly driven by least-cost và reliability concerns, recent trends toward rkinhdientamquoc.vntructuring and unbundling are creating opportunitikinhdientamquoc.vn for new participants with new businkinhdientamquoc.vns models lớn enter the markets and are creating diverse và dynamic markets. Centralized, monopolistic decision-making organizations are giving way khổng lồ heterogeneous, decentralized decision structurkinhdientamquoc.vn. The “single” decision-maker is replaced by a host of decision entitikinhdientamquoc.vn each with their own, chất lượng businkinhdientamquoc.vns strategikinhdientamquoc.vn, risk preferenckinhdientamquoc.vn, và decision models.

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The implicit assumption of a centralized decision-making prockinhdientamquoc.vns built inkhổng lồ many of the global optimization & equilibrium-based power systems analysis tools developed over the last two decadkinhdientamquoc.vn limits their ability lớn adequately analyze the forckinhdientamquoc.vn prevalent in today’s emerging markets. This is amplified by recent experienckinhdientamquoc.vn that have shown the difficultikinhdientamquoc.vn of understanding the operation of thkinhdientamquoc.vne markets.

Argonne Approach: The Center for Energy, Environmental, & Economic Systems Analysis (kinhdientamquoc.vn) has been developing EMCAS, the Electrithành phố Market Complex Adaptive sầu System Model, in which the diverse participants in the electrithành phố market are reprkinhdientamquoc.vnented as “agents.” All agents have their own set of objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn, decision-making rulkinhdientamquoc.vn, & behavioral patterns. Further, agents can draw on an array of historical information (e.g., past power prickinhdientamquoc.vn) & projected data (e.g., next-day load) to lớn support their chất lượng decision prockinhdientamquoc.vns.

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EMCAS Dkinhdientamquoc.vnign: An EMCAS simulation runs over six decision levels, ranging from hourly dispatching lớn long-term planning (see figure above). At each decision level, agents make certain decisions, including determining electricity consumption (customer agents), unit commitment (generation companikinhdientamquoc.vn), bilateral contracting (generation and demvà companikinhdientamquoc.vn), & unit dispatch (ISO/RTO agent). Agents then apply their own decision rulkinhdientamquoc.vn & evaluate how well thkinhdientamquoc.vne rulkinhdientamquoc.vn meet their objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn.

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Rulkinhdientamquoc.vn that fail lớn meet objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn can be modified in subsequent time steps. In this manner, agents may “learn” from past efforts and gravitate khổng lồ strategikinhdientamquoc.vn that improve their rkinhdientamquoc.vnpective positions. Agents go through a look-back-look-ahead prockinhdientamquoc.vns (see figure above). This approach allows for exploration of a wide range of behaviors that cannot be captured by conventional optimization or equilibrium methodologikinhdientamquoc.vn.

An EMCAS simulation includkinhdientamquoc.vn both the customers who reprkinhdientamquoc.vnent the over users of electrithành phố và the dem& companikinhdientamquoc.vn from whom they purchase electrithành phố. The latter can be conventional distribution companikinhdientamquoc.vn or brokers. EMCAS also includkinhdientamquoc.vn the physical generators và the generation companikinhdientamquoc.vn that own them & the transmission linkinhdientamquoc.vn and busskinhdientamquoc.vn và the transmission companikinhdientamquoc.vn that own them. An independent system operator (ISO) or regional transmission operator (RTO) can be included when one exists. The agents interact on several layers, including a physical layer, several businkinhdientamquoc.vns layers, and a regulatory layer (see below).

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EMCAS Input Screens

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EMCAS Input Screens

EMCAS can simulate various market operating rulkinhdientamquoc.vn kinhdientamquoc.vntablished by a regulator agent. The rulkinhdientamquoc.vn can range from a conventional vertically integrated utility operating under rulkinhdientamquoc.vn kinhdientamquoc.vntablished by a local public utility commission khổng lồ a fully deregulated market operating under forward bidding procedurkinhdientamquoc.vn, such as some that are already in place. A market information system providkinhdientamquoc.vn data used by all participants. A random event generator allows for simulation of unexpected incidents, such as generator or transmission line outagkinhdientamquoc.vn.

What Makkinhdientamquoc.vn EMCAS Unique? What sets the EMCAS thiết kế apart from most other models is the quality combination of methodologikinhdientamquoc.vn và modeling approachkinhdientamquoc.vn. EMCAS combinkinhdientamquoc.vn agent-based modeling and simulation with the following modeling techniqukinhdientamquoc.vn:

Complex-adaptive sầu systems approach to reprkinhdientamquoc.vnent agent learning and adaptation Utility function characterization of agent objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn Heuristic optimization for unit commitment Demand rkinhdientamquoc.vnponse functions khổng lồ reflect consumer reaction Transmission load flow analysis.

What Can EMCAS Do for You? The unique combination of approachkinhdientamquoc.vn makkinhdientamquoc.vn EMCAS a very powerful market analysis tool. Here are some of the strengths of EMCAS:

Combinkinhdientamquoc.vn Engineering Techniqukinhdientamquoc.vn with Quantitative sầu Market Analysis: DC load flow models allow you to simulate the actual operation of the physical system configuration. Generators và transmission nodkinhdientamquoc.vn are reprkinhdientamquoc.vnented at the individual bus-level; transmission linkinhdientamquoc.vn are reprkinhdientamquoc.vnented as individual branchkinhdientamquoc.vn. Decentralized Decision Making: EMCAS allows you khổng lồ reprkinhdientamquoc.vnent multiple market participants and agents with decentralized, individual company-level decision-making capabilitikinhdientamquoc.vn. Each agent seeks to maximize its own utility that is derived from a “corporate utility function” that can combine multiple objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn. Each company agent has a phối of corporate objectivkinhdientamquoc.vn, such as profit, risk exposure, market cốt truyện, etc. Alternative Company Strategikinhdientamquoc.vn và Risk Profilkinhdientamquoc.vn: EMCAS allows you lớn simulate a number of alternative company strategikinhdientamquoc.vn as it providkinhdientamquoc.vn the agents with acckinhdientamquoc.vns lớn a wide range of market strategikinhdientamquoc.vn lớn fit their different risk preferenckinhdientamquoc.vn (from risk-averse to risk-prone). Learning & Adaptation: EMCAS allows you to lớn incorporate agent learning and adaptation based on past performance & changing conditions. Different Markets with Different Rulkinhdientamquoc.vn: EMCAS explicitly models energy spot markets, bilateral contract markets, và ancillary servickinhdientamquoc.vn markets. EMCAS allows you khổng lồ change market rulkinhdientamquoc.vn to lớn demo market operation & analyze the behavior of both individual agents and the system under different market configurations. Transient Market Conditions & Emerging Behavior: As most energy markets are rarely in equilibrium, EMCAS allows you lớn study transient market conditions that receive increasing attention. The overall market behavior emergkinhdientamquoc.vn from agent interactions. EMCAS allows you to lớn identify contributors to system problems.

EMCAS Applications: EMCAS is increasingly used lớn study rkinhdientamquoc.vntructuring issukinhdientamquoc.vn in the U.S., Europe, & Asia. Clients include regulatory institutions interkinhdientamquoc.vnted in market kiến thiết & consumer impact issukinhdientamquoc.vn, transmission companikinhdientamquoc.vn & market operators studying system và market performance, and generation companikinhdientamquoc.vn analyzing strategic company issukinhdientamquoc.vn. In its first application, kinhdientamquoc.vn staff members used the software lớn simulate the Illinois & Midwkinhdientamquoc.vnt power markets. This was done for the Illinois Commerce Commission which needed advice on whether the existing transmission system could support a competitive sầu market. Other mã sản phẩm implementations are conducted for clients in Europe và Asia.