Nguồn của pháp luật là gì

luật sư nước ta » thông tin » Đời sống - làng mạc hội » nghiên cứu và phân tích - hội đàm » so sánh - nghiên cứu » Trợ giúp pháp luật » support
(kinhdientamquoc.vn) - trong cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng nghiu00ean cu1ee9u cu0169ng nhu01b0 thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n u00e1p du1ee5ng phu00e1p luu1eadt hiu1ec7n nay, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt ngu00e0y cu00e0ng cho thu1ea5y su1ef1 quan tru1ecdng quu1ea3 nu00f3. Mặc dù nhiu00ean, vai tru00f2 cu1ee7a nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt su1ebd khu00f4ng thu1ef1c su1ef1 u0111u01b0u1ee3c u0111u00e1nh giu00e1 u0111u00fang lúc cu00f2n hiu1ec7n tu01b0u1ee3ng khu00f4ng thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t vào nhu1eadn thu1ee9c vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng ru1ea5t lu1edbn u0111u1ebfn viu1ec7c giu1ea3ng du1ea1y vu00e0 u00e1p du1ee5ng phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0o cuu1ed9c su1ed1ng. Vì vu1eady, nhu1eadn thu1ee9c u0111u00fang, u0111u1ee7 vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u1ec3 cu00f3 cu01a1 su1edf khoa hu1ecdc gu00f3p phu1ea7n vu00e0o cu00f4ng tu00e1c u0111u00e0o tu1ea1o, tuyu00ean truyu1ec1n, phu1ed5 biu1ebfn cu00e1c tri thu1ee9c phu00e1p lu00fd cu0169ng nhu01b0 vu1eadn du1ee5ng cu00e1c tri thu1ee9c nu00e0y vu00e0o cuu1ed9c su1ed1ng tru1edf nu00ean ru1ea5t cu1ea7n thiu1ebft. Bu00e0i viu1ebft hu01b0u1edbng tu1edbi viu1ec7c gu00f3p phu1ea7n mang đến viu1ec7c nhu1eadn thu1ee9c thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t lu00fd luu1eadn vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt, vu1ec1 vai tru00f2 cu1ee7a cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u1edf Viu1ec7t phái nam hiu1ec7n nay, u0111u1eb7c biu1ec7t lu00e0 vào u0111iu1ec1u kiu1ec7n hu1ed9i nhu1eadp quu1ed1c tu1ebf. u1ea2nh minh hu1ecda. Nguu1ed3n: Internet. Mu1ed9t su1ed1 quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m u1edf Viu1ec7t phái nam vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt Nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 mu1ed9t vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 lu00fd luu1eadn u0111u01b0u1ee3c nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu00e0 cu0169ng lu00e0 mu1ed9t vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n hiu1ec7n u0111ang ru1ea5t u0111u01b0u1ee3c quan liêu tu00e2m u1edf Viu1ec7t Nam. Mặc dù nhiu00ean, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nu00e0y u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c u0111u1ec1 cu1eadp tu1eeb ru1ea5t su1edbm vào lu1ecbch su1eed phu00e1p luu1eadt. Viu1ec7c nhu1eadn thu1ee9c vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n cu0169ng nhu01b0 viu1ec7c u00e1p du1ee5ng chu00fang u1edf Viu1ec7t phái mạnh trong mu1ed9t thu1eddi gian du00e0i tru01b0u1edbc u0111u00e2y vu00e0 vu1eabn cu00f2n u0111ang diu1ec5n ra nhu01b0ng chu01b0a cu00f3 su1ef1 thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t cu1ea7n thiu1ebft. Su1ef1 chu01b0a thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t nu00e0y diu1ec5n ra khu00f4ng chu1ec9 giu1eefa cu00e1 nhu00e2n cu00e1c nhu00e0 khoa hu1ecdc mu00e0 cu00f2n xu1ea3y ra giu1eefa cu00e1c cu01a1 su1edf nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu00e0 u0111u00e0o tu1ea1o luu1eadt, cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0 cu00f3 u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n. Vào giu00e1o tru00ecnh cu1ee7a nhiu1ec1u cu01a1 su1edf u0111u00e0o tu1ea1o luu1eadt vu00e0 ku1ebft quu1ea3 nghiu00ean cu1ee9u cu1ee7a nhiu1ec1u nhu00e0 khoa hu1ecdc mang lại thu1ea5y nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 nhu1eefng cu00e1ch hiu1ec3u hou1eb7c u00edt nhu1ea5t lu00e0 su1ef1 diu1ec5n u0111u1ea1t khu00e1c nhau. Cu00f3 thu1ec3 u0111u01b0a ra u0111u01b0u1ee3c ru1ea5t nhiu1ec1u minh chu1ee9ng cho u0111iu1ec1u nu00e0y, vu00ed du1ee5: u201cHu00ecnh thu1ee9c nu1ed9i tu1ea1i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 ku1ebft cu1ea5u cu1ee7a nhu1eefng yu1ebfu tu1ed1 tu1ea1o nu00ean nu1ed9i dung cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt. Hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu1ec1 ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, cu1ea5u tru00fac biu1ec3u hiu1ec7n ra bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt vào u0111u00f3 chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng nhu1eefng nu1ed9i dung cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0 u0111u0103ng tu1ea3i nu1ed9i dung u0111u00f3 u0111u1ebfn u0111u1ecba chu1ec9 u00e1p du1ee5ng cu1ee7a nu00f3.u201d<1> Cu00f3 tu00ecnh tru1ea1ng nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0 hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu00e1p luu1eadt chu01b0a u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu00e1ch bu1ea1ch nu00ean nhiu1ec1u khi cu00f3 su1ef1 lu1eabn lu1ed9n trong nhu1eadn thu1ee9c mu1eb7c du00f9 chu00fang cu00f3 nhu1eefng u0111iu1ec3m chung. Cu00f3 khi, u1edf nhu1eefng mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 nhu1ea5t u0111u1ecbnh, hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u01b0u1ee3c su1eed du1ee5ng vậy thu1ebf hou00e0n tou00e0n mang lại nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt. Cu00f3 quan lại u0111iu1ec3m cho ru1eb1ng u201cHu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i lu00e0 su1ef1 biu1ec3u hiu1ec7n ra bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, lu00e0 cu00e1i chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng nu1ed9i dung cu00e1c quy tu1eafc phu00e1p luu1eadt- quy tu1eafc hu00e0nh vi theo u00fd chu00ed nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc. Hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f2n u0111u01b0u1ee3c gu1ecdi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt.u201d<2> mặc dù nhiu00ean, cu0169ng theo cu00e1ch tiu1ebfp cu1eadn cu1ee7a quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y thu00ec u201cu2026 khoa hu1ecdc phu00e1p lu00fd cu1ee7a chu00fang ta phu00e2n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu00e1p luu1eadt thu00e0nh hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean trong - cu1ea5u tru00fac cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0 hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt. Vu00e0 mu1ed9t cu00e1ch tu01b0u01a1ng u0111u1ed1i, hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i vào luu1eadt hu1ecdc cu0169ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c cu0169ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c coi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt. Mặc dù vu1eady hai khu00e1i niu1ec7m hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00e0 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00f4ng hou00e0n tou00e0n u0111u1ed3ng nhu1ea5t, su1ef1 thu1ef1c lu00e0 cu00f3 cu1ea3 nhu1eefng u0111iu1ec3m khu00e1c nhau cu1ea3 vu1ec1 lu00fd luu1eadn vu00e0 thu1ef1c tiu1ec5nu201d<3>. Tuy thu1eeba nhu1eadn cu00f3 su1ef1 khu00e1c nhau nhu01b0 vu1eady nhu01b0ng quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y u0111u00e3 khu00f4ng chu1ec9 ra su1ef1 khu00e1c biu1ec7t giu1eefa hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu00e1p luu1eadt vu1edbi nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt vu00ec mang đến ru1eb1ng: u201cNguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c ra cu00f3 nhiu1ec1u nghu0129a, u0111u01b0u1ee3c tiu1ebfp cu1eadn bu1edfi nhiu1ec1u phu01b0u01a1ng diu1ec7n khu00e1c nhau, mu1ed7i cu00e1ch quan tiền niu1ec7m u0111u1ec1u cu00f3 tu00ednh hu1ee3p lu00fd cu1ee7a nu00f3. Phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 hu00ecnh thu1ee9c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n u1edf phu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c tu1ed3n tu1ea1i xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a mu00ecnh - nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt. Nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 cu00e1ch thu1ee9c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt mang tu00ednh phu00e1p lu00fd bu1eaft buu1ed9c chung. Nhu01b0 vu1eady, hu00ecnh thu1ee9c thu00f4ng qua u0111u00f3 chuyu1ec3n tu1ea3i u00fd chu00ed nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc (nu00e2ng u00fd chu00ed nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc) lu00ean thu00e0nh cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u01b0u1ee3c gu1ecdi bu1eb1ng mu1ed9t thuu1eadt ngu1eef lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt.u201d<4> Nu1ebfu theo quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y thu00ec nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt chu1ec9 lu00e0 phu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n u00fd chu00ed cu1ee7a nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc mu00e0 khu00f4ng quan lại tu00e2m u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 u0111u1ebfn tu1eeb nhu1eefng nguu1ed3n khu00e1c tu1eeb xu00e3 hu1ed9i, u0111u1eb7c biu1ec7t trong xu00e3 hu1ed9i du00e2n su1ef1 ngu00e0y ni u0111u00e3 ru1ea5t phu00e1t triu1ec3n. Tu01b0u01a1ng tu1ef1 cu00e1ch tiu1ebfp cu1eadn tru00ean, cu00f3 quan lại u0111iu1ec3m đến ru1eb1ng: u201cu2026hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 mu1ed9t khu00e1i niu1ec7m thông thường bao gu1ed3m nhị mu1eb7t trong mu1ed9t chu1ec9nh thu1ec3 thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t lu00e0 hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng cu1ea5u tru00fac (bu00ean trong) vu00e0 hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt (hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt).u201d<5> Theo quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y, viu1ec7c xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh nguu1ed3n thu1eadm chu00ed chu1ec9 lu00e0 vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt - mu1ed9t hu00ecnh thu1ee9c cu1ee5 thu1ec3 cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, trong lúc u0111u00f3 vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt cu0169ng chu1ec9 u0111u01b0u1ee3c xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh lu00e0 mu1ed9t lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt mu00e0 thu00f4i. Mu1ed9t quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m khu00e1c mang lại ru1eb1ng: u201cnguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 khu00e1i niu1ec7m du00f9ng u0111u1ec3 chu1ec9 tu1ea5t cu1ea3 nhu1eefng gu00ec mu00e0 cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n du1ef1a vu00e0o u0111u00f3 u0111u1ec3 xu00e2y du1ef1ng, ban hu00e0nh, giu1ea3i thu00edch phu00e1p luu1eadt cu0169ng nhu01b0 u0111u1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng vu00e0o viu1ec7c giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1p lu00fd xu1ea3y ra trong thu1ef1c tu1ebf. Hou1eb7c nu00f3i cu00e1ch khu00e1c, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 tu1ea5t cu1ea3 cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 u0111u01b0u1ee3c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n su1eed du1ee5ng u0111u1ec3 xu00e2y du1ef1ng, ban hu00e0nh, giu1ea3i thu00edch phu00e1p luu1eadt cu0169ng nhu01b0 u0111u1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng vu00e0o viu1ec7c giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1p lu00fd xu1ea3y ra tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf. Nhu01b0 vu1eady, nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt gu1ed3m cu00f3 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung vu00e0 nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9cu2026u201d<6> Ngou00e0i viu1ec7c xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu00f3 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung, tu00e1c giu1ea3 cu1ee7a quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y cu00f2n xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee5 thu1ec3 hu01a1n: u201cNguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u01b0u1ee3c hiu1ec3u lu00e0 phu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c tu1ed3n tu1ea1i cu1ee7a cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt vào thu1ef1c tu1ebf tốt lu00e0 nu01a1i chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng, nu01a1i cu00f3 thu1ec3 cung cu1ea5p cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt, tu1ee9c lu00e0 nhu1eefng cu0103n cu1ee9 mu00e0 cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n du1ef1a vu00e0o u0111u00f3 u0111u1ec3 giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1t lu00fd xu1ea3y ra tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf.u201d<7> Su1ef1 diu1ec5n u0111u1ea1t nu00e0y cu00f3 thu1ec3 du1eabn tu1edbi viu1ec7c hiu1ec3u nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt vu1eeba lu00e0 phu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu0103n cu1ee9 phu00e1p lu00fd, vu1eeba cu00f3 thu1ec3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c hiu1ec3u lu00e0 chu00ednh cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 phu00e1p lu00fd (quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt) đến cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng giu1ea3i thu00edch vu00e0 u00e1p du1ee5ng phu00e1p luu1eadt. Mu1ed9t quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m khu00e1c cu1ee5 thu1ec3 vu00e0 mu1edf ru1ed9ng hu01a1n nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt: u201cHu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i tuyệt nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt gu1ed3m cu00f3 cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n phu00e1p luu1eadt (ku1ec3 cu1ea3 cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt), cu00e1c hiu1ec7p u01b0u1edbc quu1ed1c tu1ebf, tu1eadp quu00e1n vu00e0 tu1ee5c lu1ec7 quu1ed1c tu1ebf, cu00e1c hu1ee3p u0111u1ed3ng (khu1ebf u01b0u1edbc), luu1eadt tu1ee5c, u00e1n lu1ec7, nhu1eefng quy u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a luu1eadt tu00f4n giu00e1o (chu1eb3ng hu1ea1n luu1eadt Hu1ed3i giu00e1o), cu00e1c hu1ecdc thuyu1ebft khoa hu1ecdc phu00e1p lu00fd.u201d<8> tuy nhiu00ean, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt trong quan u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y vu1eabn u0111u01b0u1ee3c u0111u1ed3ng nhu1ea5t vu1edbi hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt. Nu1ebfu coi hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 phu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n u00fd chu00ed nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc xuất xắc du1ea1ng tu1ed3n tu1ea1i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt xuất xắc u201cphu01b0u01a1ng thu1ee9c tu1ed3n tu1ea1i giỏi cu00e1ch thu1ee9c biu1ec3u hiu1ec7n ra bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadtu201d<9> thu00ec nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt vu1edbi tu01b0 cu00e1ch lu00e0 hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt lu1ea1i tru1edf nu00ean u00f4m u0111u1ed3m khi u0111u01b0a cu1ea3 cu00e1c hu1ecdc thuyu1ebft, khoa hu1ecdc phu00e1p lu00fd vu00e0o trong u0111u00f3 vu00e0 tru1edf nu00ean mu00e2u thuu1eabn. Bu00ean cu1ea1nh u0111u00f3, cu0169ng cu00f3 quan lại u0111iu1ec3m xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh: u201cphu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng quy tu1eafc xu1eed su1ef1 sở hữu tu00ednh bu1eaft buu1ed9c phổ biến do nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc ban hu00e0nh hou1eb7c thu1eeba nhu1eadn nhu1eb1m u0111iu1ec1u chu1ec9nh cu00e1c mu1ed1i quan liêu hu1ec7 xu00e3 hu1ed9i theo mu1ee5c tiu00eau, u0111u1ecbnh hu01b0u1edbng cu1ee5 thu1ec3. Vu1edbi cu00e1ch tiu1ebfp cu1eadn nu00e0y, phu00e1p luu1eadt chu00ednh lu00e0 thu1ee9 chuu1ea9n mu1ef1c xu00e3 hu1ed9i, lu00e0 thu01b0u1edbc u0111o cu1ee7a hu00e0nh vi u0111u01b0u1ee3c hu00ecnh thu00e0nh bu1eb1ng con u0111u01b0u1eddng nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 có tu00ednh quyu1ec1n lu1ef1c nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbcu201d<10> vu00e0 u201cu2026 bu1ed9 phu1eadn cu1ed1t lu00f5i, khu00f4ng thu1ec3 thiu1ebfu cu1ee7a hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt cu0169ng lu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt (tou00e0n bu1ed9 cu00e1c quy u0111u1ecbnh phu00e1p luu1eadt chu1ee9a vào cu00e1c nguu1ed3n luu1eadt, u0111u01b0u1ee3c su1eafp xu1ebfp thu00e0nh nhu1eefng cu1ea5u tru00fac khu00e1c nhau theo tru1eadt tu1ef1 nhu1ea5t u0111u1ecbnh)u2026u201d<11> Theo cu00e1c tu00e1c giu1ea3 cu1ee7a quan lại u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y thu00ec nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt chu1ec9 lu00e0 nhu1eefng gu00ec chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u01b0u1ee3c hu00ecnh thu00e0nh bu1eb1ng nhỏ u0111u01b0u1eddng nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc mu00e0 thu00f4i. u0110u00e2y lu00e0 mu1ed9t vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 ru1ea5t cu1ea7n u0111u01b0u1ee3c nhu1eadn thu1ee9c lu1ea1i trong u0111iu1ec1u kiu1ec7n hiu1ec7n nay. Nhu1eefng phu00e2n tu00edch tru00ean đến thu1ea5y, vào truyu1ec1n thu1ed1ng u1edf Viu1ec7t Nam, cu00e1c quan u0111iu1ec3m vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt chu01b0a cu00f3 su1ef1 thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t vu1ec1 mu1eb7t nhu1eadn thu1ee9c. u0110iu1ec1u nu00e0y ku00e9o theo mu1ed9t hu1ec7 lu1ee5y lu00e0 khu00f4ng nhu1eefng viu1ec7c phu1ed5 biu1ebfn cu00e1c hiu1ec3u biu1ebft chu00ednh xu00e1c vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt luu1eadt khu00f4ng thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n u0111u01b0u1ee3c mu00e0 cu00f2n u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng u0111u1ebfn viu1ec7c u00e1p du1ee5ng phu00e1p luu1eadt, vào u0111u00f3, cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 tiu1ebfn hu00e0nh hu1ea7u nhu01b0 khu00f4ng du00e1m vu01b0u1ee3t ra khu1ecfi khuu00f4n khu1ed5 giu1edbi hu1ea1n vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n vào cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt. Biu1ec3u hiu1ec7n u0111iu1ec3n hu00ecnh nhu1ea5t đến tu00ecnh tru1ea1ng phu1ee5 thuu1ed9c nu00e0y chu00ednh lu00e0 hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n mu00e0 ku1ebft quu1ea3 cu1ee7a cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e9t xu1eed u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n trong cu00e1c bu1ea3n u00e1n, trong u0111u00f3 cu00f3 su1ef1 khu1eb3ng u0111u1ecbnh u201cnhu00e2n danh Nu01b0u1edbc CHXHCN Viu1ec7t Namu201d vu1edbi viu1ec7c chu1ec9 cu0103n cu1ee9 vu00e0o cu00e1c u0111iu1ec1u, khou1ea3n cu1ee5 thu1ec3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c quy u0111u1ecbnh vào cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u1ec3 u201cnhu1eadn thu1ea5yu201d vu00e0 u201cxu00e9t thu1ea5yu201d. Cu0169ng vu00ec u0111iu1ec1u nu00e0y mu00e0 su1ef1 u0111u1ed9c lu1eadp cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n khu00f3 cu00f3 thu1ec3 thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n u0111u01b0u1ee3c tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf. Chu1eafc chu1eafn u0111iu1ec1u nu00e0y su1ebd du1eabn u0111u1ebfn su1ef1 hu1ea1n chu1ebf tu00ednh linh hou1ea1t, chu1ee7 u0111u1ed9ng vào cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n cu1ee7a thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n phu00e1p luu1eadt trong u0111iu1ec1u kiu1ec7n hiu1ec7n nay. Quan u0111iu1ec3m vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u1edf nu01b0u1edbc ngou00e0i Tru00ean thu1ebf giu1edbi, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c u0111u1ec1 cu1eadp tu1eeb ru1ea5t su1edbm vu00e0 cu0169ng cu00f3 khu00e1 nhiu1ec1u quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m khu00e1c nhau. Theo Tu1eeb u0111iu1ec3n black Law Dictionary: u201cNguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt- cu00e1i mu00e0 (nhu01b0 lu00e0 Hiu1ebfn phu00e1p, u0111iu1ec1u u01b0u1edbc, u0111u1ea1o luu1eadt hou1eb7c tu1eadp quu00e1n) quy u0111u1ecbnh quyu1ec1n lu1ef1c cu1ee7a luu1eadt vu00e0 cu00e1c quyu1ebft u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n, u0111iu1ec3m khu1edfi nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt hou1eb7c su1ef1 phu00e2n tu00edch phu00e1p lu00fdu2026 vào cu00e1c tu00e0i liu1ec7u luu1eadt hu1ecdc, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nguu1ed3n liu00ean quan u0111u1ebfn cu00e2u hu1ecfi: Thu1ea9m phu00e1n tu00ecm u0111u01b0u1ee3c cu00e1c quy u0111u1ecbnh u0111u1ec3 giu1ea3i quyu1ebft vu1ee5 viu1ec7c u1edf u0111u00e2u? u1ede nghu0129a nu00e0y, nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt gu1ed3m cu00f3: cu00e1c u0111u1ea1o luu1eadt, u00e1n lu1ec7 cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n, quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m cu1ee7a cu00e1c chuyu00ean gia, u0111u1ea1o u0111u1ee9c vu00e0 luu1eadt cu00f4ng bu1eb1ngu2026 trong cu00e1c cuu1ed9c tranh luu1eadn, thu00f4ng thu01b0u1eddng cu00e1c nguu1ed3n khu00e1c nhau cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c phu00e2n tu00edch vu00e0 mu1ed9t su1ed1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc cu1ed1 gu1eafng tu1ea1o u0111iu1ec1u kiu1ec7n thu00edch hu1ee3p u0111u1ec3 mang lại mu1ed7i nguu1ed3n u0111u00f3 cu00f3 thu1ec3 du1eabn tu1edbi cu00e1c quyu1ebft u0111u1ecbnh đến cu00e1c cuu1ed9c tranh luu1eadn phu00e1p lu00fd. u0110iu1ec1u ku1ef3 lu1ea1 lu00e0 khi cu01a1 quan tiền lu1eadp phu00e1p ban hu00e0nh luu1eadt, chu00fang ta khu00f4ng nu00f3i vu1ec1 u201ccu00e1c nguu1ed3nu201d mu00e0 tu1eeb u0111u00f3 nu1ea3y có mặt cu00e1c quyu1ebft u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a nu00f3 giu1ed1ng nhu01b0 cu00e1c quy u0111u1ecbnh phu00e1p luu1eadt su1ebd u0111u01b0u1ee3c ban hu00e0nh, mu1eb7c du00f9 su1ef1 phu00e2n tu00edch cu00e1c thuu1eadt ngu1eef nu00e0y cu00f3 thu1ec3 lu00e0m su00e1ng tu1ecf hu01a1n so vu1edbi khuynh hu01b0u1edbng tru1ef1c tiu1ebfp hu01b0u1edbng tu1edbi chu1ee9c nu0103ng hu1ea1n chu1ebf hu01a1n u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n bu1edfi cu00e1c thu1ea9m phu00e1n. u0110iu1ec1u quan lại tu00e2m hu01a1n cu1ee7a chu00fang ta u1edf u0111u00e2y lu00e0 tu1eeb u201cnguu1ed3nu201d theo nghu0129a ru1ed9ng hu01a1n ru1ea5t nhiu1ec1u so vu1edbi nghu0129a thu00f4ng thu01b0u1eddng trong cu00e1c tu00e0i liu1ec7u luu1eadt hu1ecdcu2026 trong phu1ea1m vi nghiu00ean cu1ee9u phu00e1p lu00fd, thuu1eadt ngu1eef u201ccu00e1c nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadtu201d nu00f3i u0111u1ebfn ba khu00e1i niu1ec7m khu00e1c nhau mu00e0 cu00f3 thu1ec3 phu00e2n biu1ec7t u0111u01b0u1ee3c. Mu1ed9t, nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 thu1ec3 nu00f3i u0111u1ebfn nguu1ed3n gu1ed1c cu1ee7a cu00e1c khu00e1i niu1ec7m vu00e0 tu01b0 tu01b0u1edfng phu00e1p lu00fdu2026 Hai, nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 thu1ec3 nu00f3i u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c cu01a1 quan, tu1ed5 chu1ee9c chu00ednh phu1ee7 u0111u00e3 tu1ea1o ra cu00e1c quy u0111u1ecbnh phu00e1p luu1eadtu2026Ba, nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 thu1ec3 nu00f3i u0111u1ebfn nhu1eefng quy u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c cu00f4ng bu1ed1 ru00f5 ru00e0ng. Nhu1eefng cuu1ed1n su00e1ch, nhu1eefng cu01a1 su1edf du1eef liu1ec7u mu00e1y tu00ednh, nhu1eefng u0111u0129a mu00e1y tu00ednh vu00e0 tu1ea5t cu1ea3 nhu1eefng phu01b0u01a1ng tiu1ec7n thu00f4ng tin khu00e1c cu00f3 chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu00e1c thu00f4ng tin vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt thu00ec u0111u1ec1u lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt.u201d<12>. Theo quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 thu1ec3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c nhu1eadn thu1ee9c tu1eeb nhu1eefng nghu0129a khu00e1c nhau tu00f9y quan tiền hu1ec7 u0111u01b0u1ee3c xu00e9t tu1edbi cu1ea3 vu1ec1 nghu0129a ru1ed9ng vu00e0 hu1eb9p. Nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt theo nghu0129a ru1ed9ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu00f3 liu00ean quan lại u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 hu00ecnh thu00e0nh khu00e1i niu1ec7m, cu00e1c tu01b0 tu01b0u1edfng phu00e1p lu00fd, u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 ban hu00e0nh phu00e1p luu1eadt, cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 phu00e1p lu00fd vu00e0 cu1ea3 nhu1eefng gu00ec chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu00e1c cu0103n cu1ee9 phu00e1p lu00fd, u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c quyu1ebft u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n, u0111u1ebfn cu01a1 su1edf hu00ecnh thu00e0nh phu00e1p luu1eadt (u0111iu1ec3m khu1edfi nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt) giỏi cu00e1c lu1eadp luu1eadn, phu00e2n tu00edch phu00e1p lu00fd. Theo nghu0129a hu1eb9p, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u01b0u1ee3c hiu1ec3u lu00e0 tu1ea5t cu1ea3 nhu1eefng gu00ec chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu00e1c quy u0111u1ecbnh mu00e0 cu00e1c thu1ea9m phu00e1n du1ef1a vu00e0o u0111u1ec3 ra phu00e1n quyu1ebft. Cu00e1ch hiu1ec3u theo nghu0129a hu1eb9p nu00e0y giu1edbi hu1ea1n chu1ee7 thu1ec3 su1eed du1ee5ng nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt chu1ec9 lu00e0 cu00e1c thu1ea9m phu00e1n vu00e0 trong hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e9t xu1eed. Bu00ean cu1ea1nh u0111u00f3, cu0169ng cu00f3 mu1ed9t su1ed1 hu1ecdc giu1ea3 mang lại ru1eb1ng tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf, phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 nhị lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n lu00e0 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung vu00e0 nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c, trong u0111u00f3 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung cu00f3 vai tru00f2 quan tru1ecdng hu01a1n. Lu00fd giu1ea3i u0111iu1ec1u nu00e0y, cu00e1c hu1ecdc giu1ea3 cho ru1eb1ng vu00ec nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung su1ebd xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh lu00fd do tu1ea1i sao ngu01b0u1eddi ta lu1ea1i u0111u1eb7t ra quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00f3 mu00e0 khu00f4ng phu1ea3i lu00e0 cu00e1i khu00e1c, tu1ea1i sao lu1ea1i u1ea5n u0111u1ecbnh thu1eddi hu1ea1n nu00e0y giỏi thu1eddi hu1ea1n khu00e1cu2026 u0110u1ea1i diu1ec7n u0111iu1ec3n hu00ecnh mang đến quan u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0y lu00e0 Jean Claude Ricci lúc u00f4ng mang đến ru1eb1ng: u201cu0111u00f3 lu00e0 cu0103n nguyu00ean phu00e1p luu1eadt: cu00e1c u0111u1ed9ng cu01a1 chu00ednh tru1ecb, ghê tu1ebf, xu00e3 hu1ed9i, tu00f4n giu00e1o, vu0103n hu00f3a, u0111u1ea1o u0111u1ee9cu2026u201d<13>. Trong lúc u0111u00f3, Michel Virally xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c lu00e0: u201cCu00e1c phu01b0u01a1ng phu00e1p thiu1ebft lu1eadp cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt, tu1ee9c lu00e0 cu00e1ch thu1ee9c vu00e0 vu0103n bu1ea3n thu00f4ng qua u0111u00f3 cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 thu1ec3 tu1ed3n tu1ea1i vu1ec1 mu1eb7t phu00e1p lu00fd, tru1edf thu00e0nh bu1ed9 phu1eadn cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c u0111u1ecbnh vu00e0 phu00e1t huy hiu1ec7u lu1ef1c.u201d<14> lúc xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh nhu01b0 vu1eady, quan lại niu1ec7m nu00e0y cu00f3 vu1ebb du01b0u1eddng nhu01b0 u0111u00e3 bu00f3 hu1eb9p phu1ea1m vi nguu1ed3n u0111u01b0u1ee3c su1eed du1ee5ng tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf khi chu1ec9 thu1eeba nhu1eadn nguu1ed3n tu1eeb phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c u0111u1ecbnh, cu00f3 nghu0129a lu00e0 chu1ec9 cu00f3 cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt - tu1ea5t nhiu00ean chu1ec9 vì chưng nhu1eefng chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n ban hu00e0nh theo tru00ecnh tu1ef1, thu1ee7 tu1ee5c do nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc quy u0111u1ecbnh tru01b0u1edbc mu1edbi cu00f3 giu00e1 tru1ecb thu1ef1c tu1ebf vu00e0 u0111u01b0u1ee3c viu1ec7n du1eabn khi giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1p lu00fd. u0110iu1ec1u nu00e0y cu00f3 thu1ec3 khu00f4ng cu00f2n phu00f9 hu1ee3p vào u0111iu1ec1u kiu1ec7n hiu1ec7n nay lúc cu00e1c su1ef1 kiu1ec7n u0111u00f2i hu1ecfi su1ef1 linh hou1ea1t trong quu00e1 tru00ecnh giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1p lu00fd xu1ea3y ra ru1ea5t nhanh, ru1ea5t mu1edbi mu00e0 cu00e1c nguu1ed3n lu00e0 vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00f4ng thu1ec3 ku1ecbp ra u0111u1eddi u0111u1ec3 u0111u00e1p u1ee9ng. u0110iu1ec1u nu00e0y cu0169ng cu00f3 nghu0129a lu00e0 su1ebd lu00e0m khu00f3 cho cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n khi giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ee5 viu1ec7c phu00e1p lu00fd. Vì vu1eady, cu0169ng chu00ednh cu00e1c tu00e1c giu1ea3 nu00e0y cu0169ng nhu1eadn thu1ea5y su1ef1 hu1ea1n chu1ebf cu1ee7a cu00e1ch xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh nhu01b0 vu1eady nu00ean cho ru1eb1ng: u201cNhu1eefng nguu1ed3n luu1eadt lou1ea1i nu00e0y (nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c) vu00ec u0111u01b0u1ee3c u201cthiu1ebft lu1eadp nu00eanu201d nu00ean cu00f3 tu00ednh chu1ea5t tu01b0u01a1ng u0111u1ed1i bu1ea5t biu1ebfn. Tu00ednh bu1ea5t biu1ebfn nu00e0y gu00e2y ra mu1ed9t su1ed1 khu00f3 khu0103n: Su1ebd cu00f3 thiu1ebfu hu1ee5t nhu1eefng tru01b0u1eddng hu1ee3p khu00f4ng lu01b0u1eddng tru01b0u1edbc, nhu1eefng lu1ed7 hu1ed5ng u00edt nhiu1ec1u nghiu00eam tru1ecdng. Tu00ednh bu1ea5t biu1ebfn cu1ee7a nhu1eefng quy phu1ea1m u0111u01b0u1ee3c thiu1ebft lu1eadp nu00ean khu00f3 cu00f3 thu1ec3 phu00f9 hu1ee3p u0111u01b0u1ee3c vu1edbi nhu1eefng su1ef1 thay u0111u1ed5i vu00e0 phu00e1t triu1ec3n khu00f4ng ngu1eebng cu1ee7a thu1ef1c tu1ebf; mu1ed9t su1ed1 quy phu1ea1m su1ebd nhanh chu00f3ng tru1edf nu00ean lu1ed7i thu1eddi hou1eb7c mu1ea5t hiu1ec7u lu1ef1c vu00ec u0111u1ebfn mu1ed9t thu1eddi u0111iu1ec3m nu00e0o u0111u00f3, chu00fang su1ebd khu00f4ng thu1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c nu1eefa vu1ec1 mu1eb7t ku1ef9 thuu1eadt cu0169ng nhu01b0 vu1ec1 mu1eb7t nu1ed9i dung. Ngou00e0i ra, cu00f2n cu00f3 tu00ecnh tru1ea1ng quy phu1ea1m tu1ef1 thu00e2n tu1ed1i nghu0129a lúc u0111em u0111u1ed1i chiu1ebfu vu1edbi cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m khu00e1c vu00ec u00fd u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a ngu01b0u1eddi lu1eadp nu00ean nhu1eefng quy phu1ea1m u0111u00f3 cu00f3 thu1ec3 khu00f4ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n ru00f5u2026 u0110u1ec3 khu1eafc phu1ee5c nhu1eefng bu1ea5t cu1eadp tru00ean, ngu01b0u1eddi ta u0111u00e3 thu1eeba nhu1eadn cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt tu1ef1 nhiu00ean. Su1ef1 tu1ed3n tu1ea1i cu00e1c nguu1ed3n tu1ef1 nhiu00ean nu00e0y nhu1eb1m giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 xu1ea3y ra trong thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n. Tuy vậy lu1ea1i cu00f3 vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nu1ea3y sinh u1edf u0111u00e2y lu00e0 cu00e1c nguu1ed3n khu00f4ng chu00ednh thu1ee9c nu00e0y u1edf u0111u00e2u mu00e0 ra bu1edfi vu00ec chu00fang khu00f4ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu1ea1o ra u0111u1ec3 tru1edf thu00e0nh nguu1ed3n? Hiu1ec7u lu1ef1c cu1ee7a cu00e1c nguu1ed3n nu00e0y cu0103n cu1ee9 tru00ean cu01a1 su1edf nu00e0ou2026 Nu00f3i chung, cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m vu00e0 nguu1ed3n tu1ef1 nhiu00ean u0111u00f3 xuu1ea5t phu00e1t tu1eeb cu00e1i mu00e0 ngu01b0u1eddi ta mang đến lu00e0 mu1ed1i tu01b0u01a1ng quan tiền hu1ee3p lu00fd, lu00e0 su1ef1 phu00e2n phân chia cu00f4ng bu1eb1ng vu1ec1 lu1ee3i u00edch giu1eefa cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 phu00e1p luu1eadt theo tru1eadt tu1ef1 tu1ef1 nhiu00ean. Ngu01b0u1eddi ta gu1ecdi u0111u00f3 lu00e0 tu1eadp quu00e1n vu00e0 cu00e1c nguyu00ean tu1eafc chung vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00fac ku1ebft tu1eeb nhu1eefng cu00f4ng tru00ecnh nghiu00ean cu1ee9u lu00fd luu1eadn vu00e0 u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1eeba nhu1eadn nhu01b0 chu00fang vu1ed1n cu00f3.u201d<15> Vu1edbi quan liêu niu1ec7m nhu01b0 vu1eady, theo tu00e1c giu1ea3 nu00e0y thu00ec cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt bao gu1ed3m Hiu1ebfn phu00e1p, luu1eadt, vu0103n bu1ea3n du01b0u1edbi luu1eadt, tu1eadp quu00e1n vu00e0 u00e1n lu1ec7 lu00e0 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu1ee7a quu1ed1c gia; cu00f2n u0111iu1ec1u u01b0u1edbc quu1ed1c tu1ebf, tu1eadp quu00e1n vu00e0 cu00e1c nguu1ed3n khu00e1c tu1ee9c lu00e0 cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1i sinh tu1eeb cu00e1c nguu1ed3n tru00ean nhu01b0 cu00e1c nguyu00ean tu1eafc tầm thường cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, u00e1n lu1ec7 xuất xắc cu00e1c hu1ecdc thuyu1ebft vu00e0 cu00f4ng lu00fd lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a luu1eadt quu1ed1c tu1ebf hiu1ec7n u0111u1ea1i. Tu00e1c giu1ea3 Kelsen u0111u00e1nh giu00e1 vu1ec1 quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m mang đến ru1eb1ng nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt chu1ee7 yu1ebfu u0111u01b0u1ee3c tiu1ebfp cu1eadn du01b0u1edbi gu00f3c u0111u1ed9 lu00e0 nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c khi nu00f3i u0111u1ebfn hai phu01b0u01a1ng phu00e1p tu1ea1o nguu1ed3n. u0110u00f3 lu00e0, thu1ee9 nhu1ea5t lu00e0 su00e1ng tu1ea1o phu00e1p luu1eadt bu1eb1ng hu00ecnh thu1ee9c ban hu00e0nh cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt (cu00f3 mu1ee5c u0111u00edch u0111iu1ec1u chu1ec9nh tu1eeb tru01b0u1edbc vu00e0 theo tru00ecnh tu1ef1, thu1ee7 tu1ee5c u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c quy u0111u1ecbnh) cu00f9ng viu1ec7c thu1eeba nhu1eadn cu00e1c tu1eadp quu00e1n u0111u00e3 tru1edf nu00ean phu1ed5 biu1ebfn vu00e0 thu1ee9 hai, hu00ecnh thu1ee9c tru1ef1c tiu1ebfp xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu00e1c quyu1ec1n vu00e0 nghu0129a vu1ee5 phu00e1p lu00fd cu1ee5 thu1ec3 u1edf cu00e1c cu00e1c u00e1n lu1ec7 khi giu1ea3i quyu1ebft vu1ee5 viu1ec7c mu1edbi phu00e1t sinh. u1ede nghu0129a ru1ed9ng nhu1ea5t, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt biu1ec3u thu1ecb mu1ecdi quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt riu00eang biu1ec7t, tu1ee9c lu00e0 cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u1eb7t ra quyu1ec1n vu00e0 nghu0129a vu1ee5 phu00e1p lu00fd. Nhu01b0 vu1eady, quyu1ebft u0111u1ecbnh cu1ee7a tu00f2a u00e1n lu00e0 mu1ed9t nghu0129a vu1ee5 u0111u1eb7c biu1ec7t cu1ee7a mu1ed9t bu00ean vu00e0 tu01b0u01a1ng u1ee9ng vu1edbi quyu1ec1n cu1ee7a mu1ed9t bu00ean khu00e1c. u0110iu1ec1u u0111u00f3 du1eabn u0111u1ebfn su1ef1 mu01a1 hu1ed3, tu1ed1i nghu0129a cu1ee7a cu1ee5m tu1eeb u201cnguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadtu201d, nu00f3 du01b0u1eddng nhu01b0 khu00f4ng biu1ec3u lu1ed9 u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu1ea5t cu1ea3 vu00e0 su1ebd lu00e0 tu1ed1t hu01a1n nu1ebfu giu1ea3i quyu1ebft u0111u01b0u1ee3c vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 quy phu1ea1m bình thường nu00e0o u0111u01b0u1ee3c coi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m riu00eang biu1ec7t.

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<16> tuy nhiu00ean, nu1ebfu xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh u0111u01b0u1ee3c quy phu1ea1m bình thường nu00e0o u0111u01b0u1ee3c coi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a cu00e1c quy phu1ea1m riu00eang biu1ec7t nhu01b0 quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m cu1ee7a Kelsen lu00e0 u0111iu1ec1u cu1ef1c ku1ef3 khu00f3 nu1ebfu khu00f4ng muu1ed1n nu00f3i lu00e0 khu00f4ng thu1ec3. Mu1ed9t su1ed1 quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m chu1ec9 u0111u1ea1o u0111u1ec3 nhu1eadn thu1ee9c thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t khi nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt nu00f3i chung Nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt ngu00e0y nay ngu00e0y cu00e0ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c quan tiền tu00e2m. Ngay lập tức tu1eeb vào cu00e1c cu01a1 su1edf u0111u00e0o tu1ea1o, nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 luu1eadt, nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c chu00fa tru1ecdng hu01a1n ru1ea5t nhiu1ec1u. Vào hu1ea7u hu1ebft giu00e1o tru00ecnh giu1ea3ng du1ea1y cu00e1c mu00f4n hu1ecdc vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt, ku1ec3 cu1ea3 cu00e1c mu00f4n cu01a1 su1edf nhu01b0 Lu00fd luu1eadn bình thường vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt u0111u1ebfn cu00e1c mu00f4n thuu1ed9c khoa hu1ecdc phu00e1p lu00fd chuyu00ean ngu00e0nh nhu01b0 hiu1ebfn phu00e1p, hu00e0nh chu00ednh, du00e2n su1ef1, thu01b0u01a1ng mu1ea1i, quu1ed1c tu1ebf, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt luu00f4n luu00f4n chiu1ebfm mu1ed9t vu1ecb tru00ed ru1ea5t quan lại tru1ecdng vu00e0 gu1ea7n nhu01b0 khu00f4ng thu1ec3 thiu1ebfu. Trong cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng thu1ef1c tiu1ec5n phu00e1p lu00fd, vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu0169ng thu01b0u1eddng xuyu00ean gu1eb7p phu1ea3i vu00e0 cu0169ng cu00f3 nhiu1ec1u cu00e1ch nhu00ecn nhu1eadn khu00e1c nhau vu1ec1 cu1ea3 khu00e1i niu1ec7m, vai tru00f2, mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 su1eed du1ee5ng cu00e1c lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n. Viu1ec7c thu1ed1ng nhu1ea5t mu1ed9t cu00e1ch tu01b0u01a1ng u0111u1ed1i khi nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu1ea7n u0111u01b0u1ee3c chu00fa u00fd vu1ec1 cu00e1c vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 sau: Thu1ee9 nhu1ea5t, cu1ea7n xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh ru00f5 phu1ea1m vi nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n. Hiu1ec7n nay, u0111ang tu1ed3n tu1ea1i cu00e1ch tiu1ebfp cu1eadn vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n khu00e1 ru1ed9ng, vào u0111u00f3 cu00f3 quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m chu1ee7 yu1ebfu tu1eadp trung xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu00f3 cu1ea3 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung vu00e0 nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c. Nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung cu01a1 bu1ea3n u0111u01b0u1ee3c hiu1ec3u lu00e0 nhu1eefng cu0103n cu1ee9 mu00e0 du1ef1a vu00e0o u0111u00f3, cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt, tu1ea1o ra cu00e1c cu01a1 su1edf phu00e1p lu00fd tầm thường cho cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e3 hu1ed9i. Nu1ebfu nu00f3i tu1edbi hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt, tu1eeb tru01b0u1edbc tu1edbi nay u0111u00e3 cu00f3 khu00e1 nhiu1ec1u cu00e1c luu1eadn u0111iu1ec3m, cu00e1c cu01a1 su1edf khoa hu1ecdc liu00ean quan tiền u0111u1ebfn viu1ec7c u0111u00e1nh giu00e1, xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh cu0103n cu1ee9 xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt vu1edbi mu1ee5c tiu00eau lu00e0 lu00e0m thu1ebf nu00e0o u0111u1ec3 cu00f3 mu1ed9t hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c u0111u1ecbnh cu00f3 chu1ea5t lu01b0u1ee3ng. Viu1ec7c nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung nu00ean u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n mu1ed9t cu00e1ch u0111u1ea7y u0111u1ee7 u0111u1ec3 u0111u1ea3m bu1ea3o đến cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt tru1edf nu00ean cu00f3 hiu1ec7u quu1ea3, u0111u1eb7c biu1ec7t lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu00f3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu1eeb cu00e1c hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng nghiu00ean cu1ee9u khoa hu1ecdc, nhu1ea5t lu00e0 cu00e1c quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m hu1ecdc lu00fd. Tu1ea5t cu1ea3 nhu1eefng nguu1ed3n nu00e0y u0111u01b0u1ee3c hu00ecnh thu00e0nh tu1eeb yu00eau cu1ea7u cu1ee7a u0111u1eddi su1ed1ng xu00e3 hu1ed9i, gu1eafn liu1ec1n vu1edbi nhu1eadn thu1ee9c cu0169ng nhu01b0 u0111u00f2i hu1ecfi cu1ee7a bé ngu01b0u1eddi. Chu00fang u0111u1eb7c biu1ec7t cu00f3 giu00e1 tru1ecb u0111u1ed1i vu1edbi hou1ea1t u0111u1ed9ng xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt cu1ee7a bu1ea5t ku1ef3 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc nu00e0o. Nu00f3i cu00e1ch khu00e1c, nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung chu00ednh lu00e0 tou00e0n bu1ed9 nhu1eefng cu01a1 su1edf thu1ef1c tu1ebf u0111u1ec3 xu00e2y du1ef1ng tốt ban hu00e0nh phu00e1p luu1eadt. u0110iu1ec1u u0111u00f3 cu0169ng nghu0129a lu00e0 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt chu00ednh lu00e0 nu1ed9i dung u00fd chu00ed giỏi nhu1eefng gu00ec phu00f9 hu1ee3p vu1edbi u00fd chu00ed cu1ee7a lu1ef1c lu01b0u1ee3ng cu1ea7m quyu1ec1n vu00e0 u0111u01b0u1ee3c lu1ef1a chu1ecdn u0111u1ec3 xu00e2y du1ef1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt. Hiu1ec7n nay, viu1ec7c nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n nu1ed9i dung cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt u00edt u0111u01b0u1ee3c quan liêu tu00e2m thu1ef1c su1ef1 trong những lúc u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng cu1ee7a nguu1ed3n nu00e0y u0111u1ebfn chu1ea5t lu01b0u1ee3ng cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt nu00f3i chung lu00e0 ru1ea5t lu1edbn. Nu00f3i cu00e1ch khu00e1c, hiu1ec7n u0111ang cu00f3 tu00ecnh tru1ea1ng khu00e1 u201cbu1ea5t cu00f4ngu201d mang lại nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt nu1ed9i dung. Trong lúc u0111u00f3, nguu1ed3n cu1ea7n nghiu00ean cu1ee9u hiu1ec7n nay u0111u00e3 u0111u01b0u1ee3c quan lại tu00e2m hu01a1n ru1ea5t nhiu1ec1u u1edf Viu1ec7t nam thu00ec tu1eadp trung nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c vu1edbi tu01b0 cu00e1ch lu00e0 nhu1eefng yu1ebfu tu1ed1 chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng cu0103n cu1ee9 phu00e1p lu00fd mang đến viu1ec7c u00e1p du1ee5ng, giu1ea3i thu00edch cu0169ng nhu01b0 thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n phu00e1p luu1eadt tru00ean thu1ef1c tu1ebf vu00e0 mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 su1eed du1ee5ng tu1eebng lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c nhu01b0 thu1ebf nu00e0o cho phu00f9 hu1ee3p. u0110u1eb7c biu1ec7t viu1ec7c nghiu00ean cu1ee9u nguu1ed3n hu00ecnh thu1ee9c phu1ea3i quan tiền tu00e2m u0111u1ebfn nu01a1i chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng nhu1eefng cu0103n cu1ee9 khu00e1c u0111u1ec3 giu1ea3i quyu1ebft cu00e1c vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 phu00e1p lu00fd trong lúc hiu1ec7n nay nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh chu1ee7 yu1ebfu tu1eeb phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c u0111u1ecbnh vu00e0 u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n trong cu00e1c vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt. Thu1ee9 hai, viu1ec7c nghiu00ean cu1ee9u vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu1ea7n phu1ea3i xuu1ea5t phu00e1t tu1eeb quan niu1ec7m vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt. Hiu1ec7n cu00f3 nhiu1ec1u tru01b0u1eddng phu00e1i quan liêu niu1ec7m vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00e1c nhau nhu01b0 quan lại u0111iu1ec3m phu00e1p luu1eadt tu1ef1 nhiu00ean, quan lại u0111iu1ec3m phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c u0111u1ecbnh, quan liêu u0111iu1ec3m phu00e1p luu1eadt thu1ef1c chu1ee9ngu2026 Chu00ednh nhu1eefng u0111iu1ec1u nu00e0y lu00e0m u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng khu00f4ng u00edt tu1edbi quan lại u0111iu1ec3m vu1ec1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt. Vào cu00e1c hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt, mu1ed7i lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt su1ebd cu00f3 mu1ed9t vu1ecb tru00ed, mu1ed9t vai tru00f2 riu00eang biu1ec7t. Mu1ed7i lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 nhu1eefng u01b0u u0111iu1ec3m vu00e0 hu1ea1n chu1ebf nhu1ea5t u0111u1ecbnh nu00ean khu00f4ng mu1ed9t hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt nu00e0o chu1ec9 su1eed du1ee5ng mu1ed9t lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n duy nhu1ea5t. Tu00f9y theo truyu1ec1n thu1ed1ng phu00e1p lu00fd vu00e0 thu00e1i u0111u1ed9 cu1ee7a tu1eebng nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc mu00e0 mu1ed7i lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n u0111u00f3 lu1ea1i u0111u01b0u1ee3c su1eed du1ee5ng hou1eb7c khu00f4ng u1edf nhu1eefng mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 khu00e1c nhau tu00f9y thuu1ed9c vu00e0o mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 u01b0u u0111iu1ec3m tốt hu1ea1n chu1ebf cu1ee7a chu00fang tuyệt cu00f3 thu1ec3 bởi vì quan u0111iu1ec3m tiu1ebfp cu1eadn cu1ee7a cu00e1c nhu00e0 cu1ea7m quyu1ec1n. Phu1ed5 biu1ebfn vào lu1ecbch su1eed, phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f3 cu00e1c nguu1ed3n chu1ee7 yu1ebfu lu00e0 tu1eadp quu00e1n phu00e1p, tiu1ec1n lu1ec7 phu00e1p vu00e0 vu0103n bu1ea3n quy phu1ea1m phu00e1p luu1eadt, trong u0111u00f3 phu1ea7n lu1edbn tiu1ec1n lu1ec7 phu00e1p u0111u01b0u1ee3c gu1ecdi lu00e0 u00e1n lu1ec7 bởi chu1ee7 yu1ebfu tu1ed3n tu1ea1i du01b0u1edbi du1ea1ng lu00e0 cu00e1c phu00e1n quyu1ebft cu1ee7a cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 cu00f3 thu1ea9m quyu1ec1n tu00e0i phu00e1n. Ngou00e0i ra, cu00f2n mu1ed9t su1ed1 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00e1c, tuy khu00f4ng gu1ecdi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n cu01a1 bu1ea3n nhu01b0ng cu0169ng cu00f3 nhu1eefng u0111u00f3ng gu00f3p nhu1ea5t u0111u1ecbnh vào u0111u1eddi su1ed1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt nhu01b0 chu00ednh su00e1ch cu1ee7a cu00e1c lu1ef1c lu01b0u1ee3ng cu1ea7m quyu1ec1n, lu1ebd cu00f4ng bu1eb1ng, quan tiền u0111iu1ec3m hu1ecdc lu00fd (quan u0111iu1ec3m cu1ee7a cu00e1c nhu00e0 nghiu00ean cu1ee9u luu1eadt hu1ecdc)u2026 vu00e0 ngu00e0y nay lu00e0 cu00e1c u0111iu1ec1u u01b0u1edbc quu1ed1c tu1ebf, cu00e1c hu1ee3p u0111u1ed3ng du00e2n su1ef1, thu01b0u01a1ng mu1ea1i, lao u0111u1ed9ng vu00e0 cu1ea3 hu1ee3p u0111u1ed3ng hu00e0nh chu00ednh u0111u01b0u1ee3c ku00fd ku1ebft tru00ean cu01a1 su1edf tu1ef1 do u00fd chu00edu2026 Cu00e1c lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n nu00e0y cu00f3 quan tiền hu1ec7 vu1edbi nhau, vu1eeba bu1ed5 sung cho nhau, vu1eeba ku1ebft hu1ee3p vu1edbi nhau u0111u1ec3 phu00e1t huy u0111u01b0u1ee3c nhu1eefng giu00e1 tru1ecb, u01b0u thu1ebf cu1ee7a nhau nhu01b0ng cu0169ng cu00f3 thu1ec3 giu1edbi hu1ea1n nhau u1edf nhu1eefng mu1ee9c u0111u1ed9 nhu1ea5t u0111u1ecbnh. Khi xu00e3 hu1ed9i phu00e1t triu1ec3n cấp tốc vu00e0 ngu00e0y cu00e0ng tru1edf nu00ean phu1ee9c tu1ea1p thu00ec cu00e1c nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt truyu1ec1n thu1ed1ng nhiu1ec1u lúc khu00f4ng u0111u00e1p u1ee9ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c yu00eau cu1ea7u. Viu1ec7c ghi nhu1eadn vào phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00e1c nguyu00ean tu1eafc tầm thường u0111u1ec3 lu00e0m hu00ecnh thu00e0nh cu00e1c lou1ea1i nguu1ed3n cu00f3 vai tru00f2 ru1ea5t quan tru1ecdng. Vu00ed du1ee5, Bu1ed9 Luu1eadt du00e2n su1ef1 nu0103m 2015 cu00f3 quy u0111u1ecbnh: u201cTru01b0u1eddng hu1ee3p cu00e1c bu00ean khu00f4ng cu00f3 thu1ecfa thuu1eadn vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00f4ng quy u0111u1ecbnh thu00ec cu00f3 thu1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng tu1eadp quu00e1n nhu01b0ng tu1eadp quu00e1n u00e1p du1ee5ng khu00f4ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c tru00e1i vu1edbi cu00e1c nguyu00ean tu1eafc cu01a1 bu1ea3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt du00e2n su1ef1 quy u0111u1ecbnh tu1ea1i u0110iu1ec1u 3 cu1ee7a Bu1ed9 luu1eadt nu00e0y.u201d<17> Vu1edbi quy u0111u1ecbnh nu00e0y, thu1ecfa thuu1eadn cu1ee7a cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 vào cu00e1c quan liêu hu1ec7 du00e2n su1ef1 u0111u1ec3 tu1ea1o ra cu00e1c quyu1ec1n vu00e0 nghu0129a vu1ee5 phu00e1p lu00fd u0111u1ec3 ru00e0ng buu1ed9c cu00e1c bu00ean gia nhập thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n, u0111u1ed3ng thu1eddi cu0169ng lu00e0 cu01a1 su1edf đến cu00e1c cu01a1 quan tiền tu00e0i phu00e1n giu1ea3i quyu1ebft tranh chu1ea5p (nu1ebfu cu00f3) ra cu00e1c phu00e1n quyu1ebft u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n trong cu00e1c hu1ee3p u0111u1ed3ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c ku00fd ku1ebft. u0110iu1ec1u nu00e0y cu0169ng tu1ea1o ra nhiu1ec1u hu01a1n su1ef1 tu1ef1 vì chưng cho cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 vào cu00e1c giao du1ecbch du00e2n su1ef1 mu00e0 khu00f4ng cu1ea7n u0111u1ebfn hou1eb7c cu00f3 ru1ea5t u00edt su1ef1 can thiu1ec7p cu1ee7a nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc. u0110u00f3 lu00e0 nhu1eefng u201cluu1eadt tu1ef1 nhiu00eanu201d hu00ecnh thu00e0nh tu1eeb cuu1ed9c su1ed1ng mu00e0 cu00e1c nhu00e0 lu00e0m luu1eadt nhiu1ec1u khi khu00f4ng du1ef1 tu00ednh nu1ed5i. u0110iu1ec1u nu00e0y cu00f3 liu00ean quan liêu u0111u1ebfn mu1ed9t quy u0111u1ecbnh lu00e0 u201cTu00f2a u00e1n khu00f4ng u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu1eeb chu1ed1i giu1ea3i quyu1ebft vu1ee5 viu1ec7c du00e2n su1ef1 vu00ec lu00fd vì chưng chu01b0a cu00f3 u0111iu1ec1u luu1eadt u0111u1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng. Vu1ee5 viu1ec7c du00e2n su1ef1 chu01b0a cu00f3 u0111iu1ec1u luu1eadt u0111u1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng lu00e0 vu1ee5 viu1ec7c du00e2n su1ef1 thuu1ed9c phu1ea1m vi u0111iu1ec1u chu1ec9nh cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt du00e2n su1ef1 nhu01b0ng tu1ea1i thu1eddi u0111iu1ec3m vu1ee5 viu1ec7c du00e2n su1ef1 u0111u00f3 phu00e1t sinh vu00e0 cu01a1 quan, tu1ed5 chu1ee9c, cu00e1 nhu00e2n yu00eau cu1ea7u Tu00f2a u00e1n giu1ea3i quyu1ebft chu01b0a cu00f3 u0111iu1ec1u luu1eadt u0111u1ec3 u00e1p du1ee5ng. Viu1ec7c giu1ea3i quyu1ebft vu1ee5 viu1ec7c du00e2n su1ef1 quy u0111u1ecbnh tu1ea1i khou1ea3n nu00e0y u0111u01b0u1ee3c thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n theo cu00e1c nguyu00ean tu1eafc bởi vì Bu1ed9 luu1eadt du00e2n su1ef1 vu00e0 Bu1ed9 luu1eadt nu00e0y quy u0111u1ecbnh.u201d<18> Thu1ef1c tu1ebf, khu00f4ng mu1ed9t nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc nu00e0o cu00f3 thu1ec3 tru00f9 liu1ec7u u0111u01b0u1ee3c tu1ea5t cu1ea3 cu00e1c tu00ecnh huu1ed1ng cu1ea7n u0111iu1ec1u chu1ec9nh bu1eb1ng phu00e1p luu1eadt bởi vì su1ef1 phu1ee9c tu1ea1p cu1ee7a cu00e1c quan hu1ec7 xu00e3 hu1ed9i cu0169ng cu0169ng nhu01b0 su1ef1 cụ u0111u1ed5i cấp tốc chu00f3ng cu1ee7a xu00e3 hu1ed9i. Trong những khi u0111u00f3, quan liêu niu1ec7m truyu1ec1n thu1ed1ng u1edf Viu1ec7t nam giới thu00ec phu00e1p luu1eadt luu00f4n luu00f4n lu00e0 su1ef1 thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n u00fd chu00ed cu1ee7a nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc nhu01b0 nhu1eefng khu1eb3ng u0111u1ecbnh du01b0u1edbi du1ea1ng: u201cHu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i lu00e0 su1ef1 biu1ec3u hiu1ec7n ra bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, lu00e0 cu00e1i chu1ee9a u0111u1ef1ng nu1ed9i dung cu00e1c quy tu1eafc phu00e1p luu1eadt - quy tu1eafc hu00e0nh vi theo u00fd chu00ed nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc. Hu00ecnh thu1ee9c bu00ean ngou00e0i cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt cu00f2n u0111u01b0u1ee3c gu1ecdi lu00e0 nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt.u201d<19> giỏi u201cphu00e1p luu1eadt lu00e0 hu1ec7 thu1ed1ng cu00e1c quy tu1eafc xu1eed su1ef1 do nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc ban hu00e0nh vu00e0 bu1ea3o u0111u1ea3m thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n, thu1ec3 hiu1ec7n u00fd chu00ed cu1ee7a giai cu1ea5p thu1ed1ng tru1ecb trong xu00e3 hu1ed9i , lu00e0 nhu00e2n tu1ed1 u0111iu1ec1u chu1ec9nh cu00e1c quan lại hu1ec7 xu00e3 hu1ed9iu201d<20>u2026 quan liêu niu1ec7m nu00e0y cu00f3 thu1ec3 u0111u00e3 u201cbu00f3p nghu1eb9tu201d tu01b0 duy giu1ea3i phu00f3ng bé ngu01b0u1eddi, u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng nghiu00eam tru1ecdng u0111u1ebfn nguyu00ean tu1eafc cu00f4ng du00e2n, cu00e1c chu1ee7 thu1ec3 du00e2n su1ef1 u0111u01b0u1ee3c lu00e0m tu1ea5t cu1ea3 nhu1eefng gu00ec phu00e1p luu1eadt khu00f4ng cu1ea5m, hu1ea1n chu1ebf tu1ef1 vì chưng cu1ee7a nhỏ ngu01b0u1eddi. Viu1ec7c xu00e1c u0111u1ecbnh nguu1ed3n phu00e1p luu1eadt, ngu01b0u1ee3c lu1ea1i cu0169ng cu00f3 u1ea3nh hu01b0u1edfng u0111u1ebfn viu1ec7c nhu1eadn thu1ee9c lu1ea1i vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadt truyu1ec1n thu1ed1ng u1edf Viu1ec7t nam giới hiu1ec7n nay mu00e0 nhiu1ec1u cu01a1 su1edf u0111u00e0o tu1ea1o luu1eadt vu1eabn chu01b0a thu1ef1c hiu1ec7n u0111u01b0u1ee3c. ==============================<1> u0110u00e0o Tru00ed u00dac, u201cNhu1eefng vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 lu00fd luu1eadn cu01a1 bu1ea3n vu1ec1 phu00e1p luu1eadtu201d, NXB Khoa hu1ecdc xu00e3 hu1ed9i, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 1993, tr 39, 54<2> u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Quu1ed1c gia- Khoa Luu1eadt, (PGS.TS Hou00e0ng Thu1ecb Kim Quu1ebf chu1ee7 biu00ean), 2005, Giu00e1o tru00ecnh Lu00fd luu1eadn chung vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, NXB u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Quu1ed1c gia Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, tr 303.<3> Su0111d, tr 304.<4> Su0111d, tr 305.

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<5> u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Luu1eadt Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2010, (chu1ee7 biu00ean: GS.TS Lu00ea Minh Tu00e2m), Giu00e1o tru00ecnh lu00fd luu1eadn nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, NXB Cu00f4ng an nhu00e2n du00e2n,tr 401.<6>, 7 Nguyu1ec5n Thu1ecb Hu1ed3i, Vu1ec1 khu00e1i niu1ec7m nguu1ed3n cu1ee7a phu00e1p luu1eadt, Tu1ea1p chu00ed luu1eadt su1ed1 2/2008, tr 29, 30.<8> u0110u00e0o Tru00ed u00dac, Nhu1eefng vu1ea5n u0111u1ec1 lu00ed luu1eadn cu01a1 bu1ea3n vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, NXb Khoa hu1ecdc xu00e3 hu1ed9i, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 1993, tr 54<9> u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Luu1eadt Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, Giu00e1o tru00ecnh lu00fd luu1eadn vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, (chu1ee7 biu00ean: GS.TS Lu00ea Minh Tu00e2m, PGS. TS Nguyu1ec5n Minh u0110oan), NXB Cu00f4ng an nhu00e2n du00e2n, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2013, tr 114<10> u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Luu1eadt Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, Giu00e1o tru00ecnh lu00fd luu1eadn vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, (chu1ee7 biu00ean: GS.TS Lu00ea Minh Tu00e2m, PGS. TS Nguyu1ec5n Minh u0110oan), NXB Cu00f4ng an nhu00e2n du00e2n, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2013, tr 96<11> Su0111d tr 471<12> Xem: đen Law Dictionary. Seventh Edition. Bryan A, Garner. Editor in Chief. ST. PAUL, MINN, 1999, tr 1041<13> Jean Claude Ricci, Nhu1eadp mu00f4n luu1eadt hu1ecdc, NXB Vu0103n hu00f3a- Thu00f4ng tin, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2002, tr 43, <14> Su0111d, tr 43- 44<15> Jean Claude Ricci, Nhu1eadp mu00f4n luu1eadt hu1ecdc, NXB Vu0103n hu00f3a- Thu00f4ng tin, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2002, tr 48-49<16> Xem: u201cIntroduction lớn the problems of legal theoryu201d by Hans Kelsen, Clarendon, Oxford 1992<17> u0110iu1ec1u 5, khou1ea3n 2, Bu1ed9 luu1eadt du00e2n su1ef1 nu0103m 2015<18> u0110iu1ec1u 4 khou1ea3n 2, Bu1ed9 Luu1eadt tu1ed1 tu1ee5ng du00e2n su1ef1 nu0103m 2015<19> Su0111d, tr 303.<20> Tru01b0u1eddng u0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Luu1eadt Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, Giu00e1o tru00ecnh lu00fd luu1eadn vu1ec1 nhu00e0 nu01b0u1edbc vu00e0 phu00e1p luu1eadt, (chu1ee7 biu00ean: GS.TS Lu00ea Minh Tu00e2m,), NXB Cu00f4ng an nhu00e2n du00e2n, Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i, 2010, tr 66. TIu1ebeN Su0128 Bu00d9I XUu00c2N PHu00c1Iu0110u1ea1i hu1ecdc Luu1eadt Hu00e0 Nu1ed9i